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International Journal of
Indian Science and Research

(Online - Monthly - Multidisciplinary Subject)
ISSN: 2583-4584
Volume - 1, Issue -3, September 2022

A Study of Heart failure events of survival as a Composite of Heart Failure, Physical and Depressive Symptoms

(Article - 2, Volume -1, Issue -3, September 2022, Pages 14- 25)




Dr. Kyoung Suk Lee,



Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506


                 Heart failure (HF) is a growing health care concern associated with adverse issues and stunning health care expenditures. In addition to traditional threat factors (e.g., age and comorbidities), cerebral status is honored as a significant predictor of issues. Depressive symptoms are related to poor prognostic and quality of life in cases with HF. therefore, it's important for health care providers to fete and manage depressive symptoms meetly in the HF population. Depressive symptoms are common in cases with HF, with a frequency from 30 to 51. This large variability might be related to the selection of instruments to measure depressive symptoms and their cut points for defining varying situations of depressive symptoms. Instruments used to measure the situations of depressive symptoms frequently include physical depressive symptoms, similar as changes in appetite, sleep disturbances, or fatigue. still, these symptoms are constantly reported by cases with HF. This poses a challenge for health care providers to directly screen and cover depressive symptoms because these physical depressive symptoms may reflect the inflexibility of HF rather than depressive symptom status. Cases in more advanced stages of HF have lesser physical symptom frequency and burden than those in less advanced stage of HF. Cases with depressive symptoms witness further physical symptoms of HF (dyspnea, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and loss of appetite) than cases without depressive symptoms. therefore, the addition of physical symptoms might reflect HF inflexibility, inflate the inflexibility of depressive symptoms, and in turn, instinctively increase their impact on issues in HF. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of physical depressive symptoms on the PHQ- 9overestimates the relationship of depressive symptoms to cardiac event-free survival. The specific end was to compare the prophetic capability for cardiac event-free survival of the full PHQ- 9 with performances that contain just the physical and just the affective depressive symptoms after conforming for health status and clinical and socio- demographic variables.

Key Words  


Heart Failure,  depressive symptom,  prognostic, socio- demographic variables

DOI:  10.5281/zenodo.7109353

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